Formaldehyde
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Formaldehyde

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Identification | Characterisation | Formula | Physical and chemical properties | Toxicology / Ecotoxicology | Occupational health and first aid | Safe handling | Regulations | Links | Literature register

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IDENTIFICATION

IDENTIFICATION

Formaldehyde
Formalin
Oxomethane
Formic aldehyde
Methanal
ZVG No: 10520
CAS No: 50-00-0 Formaldehyde, anhydrous
EC No: 200-001-8
INDEX No: 605-001-00-5

CHARACTERISATION

SUBSTANCE GROUP CODE

142600
162000
Aldehydes
Organic gases

STATE OF AGGREGATION

The substance is gaseous.

PROPERTIES

Gas, usual in trade as aqueous solution
colourless
pungent odour

CHEMICAL CHARACTERISATION

Extremely flammable gas. Forms explosive mixtures with air.
Freely soluble in water.
Aqueous solutions of formaldehyde gas have a noticable vapour pressure at room temperature. Formaldehyde tends to form polymers when in aqueous solution.
Acute or chronic health hazards result from the substance.
The substance is hazardous to the aquatic environment.
(see: chapter REGULATIONS).

Substance information in Wikipedia

FORMULA

CH2O
Picture
Molar mass: 30,03 g/mol
Conversion factor (gaseous phase) at 1013 mbar and 20 °C:
1 ml/m³  =   1,25 mg/m³

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Melting point | Boiling point | Critical data | Density | Vapour pressure | Flash point | Ignition temperature | Explosion data | Solubility | Partition coefficient | Hazardous reactions

MELTING POINT

Melting point: -117 °C
Reference: 00440 

BOILING POINT

Boiling Point: -19 °C
Reference: 00440 

CRITICAL DATA

Crit. temperature: 133 °C
Reference: 00440 

DENSITY

DENSITY
Value: 0,8153 g/cm³
Temperature: 20 °C
pure substance
Reference: 00106 
RELATIVE VAPOUR DENSITY
Ratio of the density to dry air at the same temperature and pressure
Value: 1,037
pure substance
Reference: 00440 

VAPOUR PRESSURE

Vapour pressure: 2 hPa
Temperature: 20 °C
Formaldehyde solutions 37 %
Reference: 01241 
Vapour pressure: 4378 ...  4420 hPa
Temperature: 20 °C
Gas
Reference: 00220 
Vapour pressure: 5176 ...  5185 hPa
Temperature: 25 °C
Gas
Reference: 00435 

FLASH POINT

Flash point: 85 °C
Closed cup
aqueous formaldehyde solution, 37 %, methanol-free
Reference: 07520 
Flash point: 62 °C
Closed cup
aqueous formaldehyde solution, 37 %, containing 10 % methanol
Reference: 01211 
Flash point: 50 °C
Closed cup
aqueous formaldehyde solution, 37 %, containing 15 % methanol
Reference: 07520 

IGNITION TEMPERATURE

Ignition temperature: 430 °C
Temperature class: T2
Reference: 00440 

EXPLOSION DATA

Lower explosion limit:
7 vol.%
87 g/m³
Upper explosion limit:
73 vol.%
910 g/m³
Max. exper. safe gap (MESG): 0,57 mm
Explosion group: IIB
Reference: 00440 

SOLUBILITY IN WATER

freely soluble in water
Reference: 07796 

PARTITION COEFFICIENT (octanol/water)

log Kow: 0,35
Recommended value of LOG KOW Databank.
Reference: 02070 

HAZARDOUS REACTIONS

Hazardous chemical reactions:
 
Risk of explosion in contact with:
nitric acid
hydrogen peroxide
nitromethane
performic acid
peracetic acid
phenol (polymerization)
nitrogen dioxide (180 deg. C)
 
The substance polymerize in contact with:
alkalies
nitrides
polymerization initiators
 
The substance can react dangerously with:
strong oxidizing agents
furfuryl alcohol
potassium permanganate
magnesium carbonate
sodium hydroxide
perchloric acid + aniline
hydrochloric acid

TOXICOLOGY / ECOTOXICOLOGY

TOXICOLOGICAL DATA

LD50 oral rat
Value: 100 mg/kg
Food and Chemical Toxicology. Vol. 26, Pg. 447, 1988.
LD50 dermal
Species: Rabbit
Value: 292 mg/kg
Union Carbide Data Sheet. Vol. 4/21/1967,
Reference: 02071 

ECOTOXICOLOGICAL DATA

LC50 Fish (96 hours)
Minimum: 1,41 mg/l
Maximum: 330 mg/l
Median: 52,5 mg/l
Study number: 106
Reference for median:
Bills, T.D., L.L. Marking, and G.E. Howe 1993. Sensitivity of Juvenile Striped Bass to Chemicals Used in Aquaculture. Resour.Publ.192, Fish Wildl.Serv., U.S.D.I., Washington, DC :11 p.
LC50 Crustaceans (48 hours)
Minimum: 954 mg/l
Maximum: 1160 mg/l
Median: 1070 mg/l
Study number: 6
Reference for median:
Espiritu, E.Q., C.R. Janssen, and G. Persoone 1995. Cyst-Based Toxicity Tests. VII. Evaluation of the 1-h Enzymatic Inhibition Test (Fluotox) with Artemia nauplii. Environ.Toxicol.Water Qual. 10:25-34
EC50 Crustaceans (48 hours)
Minimum: 5,8 mg/l
Maximum: 29 mg/l
Median: 14 mg/l
Study number: 5
Reference for median:
Lagerspetz, K.Y.H., A. Tiiska, and K.E.O. Senius 1993. Low Sensitivity of Ciliary Activity in the Gills of Anodonta cygnea to Some Ecotoxicals. Comp.Biochem.Physiol.C 105(3):393-395
Reference: 02072 

OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND FIRST AID

Routes of exposure | Toxic effects | First Aid | Occupational health check

ROUTES OF EXPOSURE

Main Routes of exposure:
The main route of exposure for formaldehyde solution (FMH) is via the respiratory tract. [7619]
Respiratory tract:
The largest part of the inhaled FMH is retained and absorbed in the upper respiratory tract; in humans probably primarily at the mucosae of the nose and the mouth, but certain portions also in the trachea and the bronchial tubes. [7985]
In the nose the gas is initially dissolved in the mucous layer above the nasal epithelium and, due to its high reactivity, is transformed as early as with the components of this layer. Sufficiently high concentrations involve a concentration gradient of free FMHS within the layers of the nasal epithelium.
Further reactions might occur within the epithelial cells leading to a deactivation of FMH.
Due to the high reactivity only a minor portion of free FMHS becomes bioavailable in the organism.
In studies on test persons and test animals (monkeys, rats) the physiologically available FMH levels did not significantly increase after external exposure to 2-24 ppm FMHS. [7619]
Skin:
Skin contact is particularly possible during the handling of aqueous FMH solutions or liquid resins containing FMH. [7985]
According to results from animal experiments and in-vitro studies on human skin, FMH binds to biomolecules in the skin either reversibly or irreversibly (provided it does not vaporise). [99996]
However, it is not expected that significant portions of FMH becomes systemically available after contact with intact skin. [5334]
Gastrointestinal tract:
Results of animal experiments indicate that FMH (or its reaction products) can be effectively absorbed via the digestive tract. [99996]

TOXIC EFFECTS

Main toxic effects:
Acute effects:
Irritative to corrosive effects on the eyes and the skin; [435, 7510] skin-sensitizing effects; irritations of the respiratory tract; [7619]
Chronic effects:
Irritative effects on eyes and the respiratory tract; allergic skin diseases. [7619, 7748]
Acute toxicity:
Due to its high reactivity FMH is easily transformed with macromolecules; therefore, toxic effects occur primarily in the tissues and the organs that come directly into contact with the substance. [7985]
Aqueous FMH solutions triggered slight, reversible eye irritations (e.g., 0.2% solution) up to persistent damage (permanent corneal turbidity e.g., after exposures to 40% solution) depending on the concentration and the medical treatment. In many cases the extent of the damage cannot be assessed, with the effects becoming clear as late as within the following 12 hours. [7979]
FMH solutions caused irritations to necroses of the skin. Intensive contact with 4% to 10% solutions entailed brownish discolourations of the skin and the nails, damage to the nail substance, inflammations of the nail fold, blister formation, inflammations and hardening of the skin. [7836] In approx. 5% of the population 1% aqueous FMH solution still triggers irritative reactions after occlusive exposure. [83]
A skin-sensitising potential was also confirmed by experiences with humans and numerous animal experiments. It was derived from the extensive data material that immediate exposure to FMH solution in concentrations of more than 2% can induce (type IV) contact allergies. Concentrations as of 0.05% FMH can trigger allergic reactions in sensitised persons. [7914]
However, acute allergic skin reactions appear to be mostly induced via the air and to manifest themselves in the facial area (often in the form of a periorbital oedema). [7748]
Individual reports describe immediate systemic-allergic (anaphylactic) reactions after skin contact or also after contact of the mouth area with the substance (generalised urticaria with pruritus, lip and face oedema, chest pain and similar symptoms,). [7619]
Due to its low bioavailability, acute systemic toxic effects are not expected to occur after the contact of the intact skin with FMH. [5334]
In a special case systemic effects were observed in humans in connection with skin injuries, the systemic effects were ascribed to the absorption of FMHS via the skin; contact of large skin areas with a phenol formaldehyde resin containing free FMHS triggered skin necroses and effects at the cardiovascular system and the kidneys. [7748]
The major effects entailed in exposures to the inhalation of the substance are local irritations of the mucosae. Rare cases also involved allergic asthma as immediate or late reaction (for more details please refer to ‘Chronic toxicity’).
The following information on the concentration-response relationship is available on the local irritative effects: Studies of probands (a few minutes to 6 hours) implied that the threshold concentration for nose-throat irritations amounts to approx. 1 ppm, while the odour can be perceived even during minor exposures (below 0.05 ppm).
Sufficiently valid data on the threshold value pertain to the eye-irritating potential. The related effects occur at 0.5-1 ppm; lower values were only observed in individual cases. Persons exposed for the first time did not react more sensitively than persons who had undergone long-term exposures or asthmatics. [7619]
Augmenting concentrations led to increasingly stronger irritative effects on the eyes and the respiratory tract; 4-5 ppm triggered lacrimation, pronounced irritations in the nose and the throat; exposures to 10-20 ppm entailed burning sensations in the eyes, extreme lacrimation, burning sensations in the nose and the throat, strong respiratory complaints, strong coughing; 50-100 ppm caused additional tightness in the chest, headache, cardiac palpation; moreover swellings or spasms of the larynx induced by the substance can result in corrosions of the eyes, and, in extreme cases, death by suffocation. [7656]
It was estimated that exposures to 50-100 ppm over 5-10 minutes can also cause lung damage. The IDHL value (immediately dangerous to life or health value) was considered to be 20 ppm for FMH. [7930]
Oral toxicities were described for formalin (37% FMHS solution). In most cases they were similar to acid ingestion, including the typical injuries of the mucosae (necroses, partially also ulceration) in the mouth, the oesophagus, the stomach and the upper sections of the intestines. The symptoms included strong burning sensations, retching spasms [7637] and stomach pain, some cases involved bloody vomiting. Frequent effects were shortness of breath and anxiety in the heart region. [7606]
Metabolic disorders (metabolic acidosis with consequential lactic acidemia) can entail CNS disorders (vertigo, loss of consciousness, coma). [7748]
Absorptive effects can also include injuries of the kidney (with albuminuria and anuria). Stomach perforation or strictures in the stomach, the intestines and possibly in the oesophagus might occur with some delay. Even 10-20 ml formalin can be lethal. [7637]
Chronic toxicity:
Allergic skin diseases were often described as consequences of industrial and non-industrial contact with FMH-containing solutions or materials. [7914, 7619]
Eczema on the hands and the arms appear to represent the chronic forms of the skin sensitisations. [7748]
Positive results of skin tests with FMHS were observed particularly often in workers in the health services, cleaning specialists and metal workers (chiefly those involved in metal cutting). The decreasing utilisation of FMHS in these activities resulted in a clear reduction in the reaction rates. [7619]
Due to the extensive utilisation of FMHS high sensitisation rates were also found in the general public. In studies on skin patients these rates amounted to up to 9% in the mid 1990s. Meanwhile, these numbers have also decreased, and nowadays they range between 0.5% and 2% in Europe. [7914, 7619]
In some cases persons who exposed to the substance, in the industrial or non-industrial context, were reported to have suffered from FMH-induced asthma. Inhalation provocation tests partly involved positive reactions: mostly immediate reactions, dual reactions or isolated late reactions were observed in rare cases. A consistent relationship between bronchial reactions and skin sensitisations was not found. Altogether, an allergic genesis of the FMH-induced asthmatic reactions was sufficiently confirmed only in few cases. [7619] In many cases the irritative effects of FMH in persons who acquired their asthma diseases somewhere else appears to have triggered the respiratory reactions. [7748]
With regard to the local irritative potential older workplace studies demonstrated that the high exposures to FMHS that were common earlier entailed conjunctivitis and inflammations of the mucosae in the nose-and-throat area. Workers exposed to lower concentrations for several months or years developed chronic diseases of the bronchial tubes. [7637]
In more recent workplace studies an increasing number of workers exposed to 0.4-1 ppm or 1-3 ppm FMHS exhibited eye and nose irritations and a ‘dry’ throat compared with workers with background exposures (0.05 ppm). The decrease in certain respiratory function parameters (FEV1, FVC) was also observed, but this condition was rapidly reversible.
Several studies could histologically verify lesions of the nasal mucosae (loss of the cilia, hyperplastic and atrophic changes), whereas the exposures were partly very low (also below 1 ppm). To date, the concentrations that induce the occurrence of these changes cannot be estimated.
With regard to the irritative potential it was in summary derived from the available data that almost all workers are protected from eye irritations at exposures to 0.3 ppm FMHS. However, the presence of other chemicals and dusts might entail a higher sensitivity to the irritative effects. [7619]
Reproductive toxicity, Mutagenicity, Carcinogenicity:
For classifying the reproductive toxicity and mutagenic and carcinogenic potential see list in Annex VI of the CLP regulation or TRGS 905 or List of MAK values.
(see section REGULATIONS).
Reproductive toxicity:
There is no reason to fear a risk of damage to the developing embryo or foetus when MAK and BAT values are observed.
This assessment is based on animal experiments that did not involve any foetotoxic effects as long as exposures to maternal toxic concentrations were omitted.
Animal experiments did not provide any indications of an adverse impact on the fertility or to damage of the reproduction organs. [5334]
Mutagenicity:
Certain findings in appropriate mutagenicity tests give ground for concern because of possible mutagenic action to human germ cells.
[7510]
FMH generated genotoxic effects on directly exposed tissues, particularly the formation of DNA protein crosslinks; DPX. This effect is only weak after low exposures that do not cause any cell proliferation. [7619, 99996, 5334]
A mutagenic effect on the germ cells is not expected after exogenous exposures to FMH that do not entail a significantly bioavailability of FMHS. [99996] Due to the rapid metabolisation exposures to the industrially relevant concentration range of up to 0.3 ppm, FMH are not considered to involve an increased genetic risk for humans. [7619]
Carcinogenic potential:
From the available information material it was concluded that the substance should be considered as carcinogenic for humans.
[7510]
In inhalation studies on rodents FMH triggered the formation of tumours in the nasal mucosa, preceded by mucosal lesions and regenerative cell proliferation. [7619]
Numerous older studies did not permit definite conclusions for humans. However, data from newer, extended epidemiological studies point to the possibility of analogous cancerous changes.
After reassessment of all data several expert panels consider the evidence or at least the limited evidence for a connection between exposures to FMH and the development of nasopharyngeal tumours in humans as established. [7890, 7748, 99996, 2052]
Considering the specific mechanism of tumour formation as well as extensive epidemiological data, low FMH exposures not causing increased cell proliferation are considered to provide a negligible contribution to the cancer risk in humans. National expert panels derived a ‘safe level’ of 0.1 ppm for the general population and 0.3 ppm for industrial exposures.
A causal relation of exposures to FMH and the occurrence of leukaemias which was only implied by one study is not confirmed and questionable from the mechanical point of view. [99996]
Biotransformation and Excretion:
Due to the high reactivity, large FMH portions are directly bound at the site of the primary contact or immediately metabolised. Only minor amounts become systemically available in the organism. [99996]
FMH binds to glutathione inside the cell and can in large part undergo chemical bonding with other SH group-containing peptides and proteins or other functional protein groups. Hemithioacetal S-hydroxymethyl-glutathione generated with glutathione is enzymatically transformed to S-formylglutathione. This can release formate under glutathione cleavage. However, S-formylglutathione is durable enough to bind covalently to tetrahydrofolate and can be included in the physiological C1 metabolism via this route.
Inhalation experiments on rats demonstrated that exogenously supplied formaldehyde is included for the development of RNA and DNA components that are not only found at the site of the local exposure but also in removed tissues, e.g., in the bone marrow. S-formylglutathione is probably the transportation means with the help of which the substance is brought to these organs. [7619]
The metabolic end products of FMHS are CO2, which is exhaled as well as formate eliminated with the urine. [7985]
Annotation:
This occupational health information was compiled on 15.05.2017.
It will be updated if necessary.
This information was translated from German into English by Übersetzungsbüro Branco.

FIRST AID

Eyes:
Rinse the affected eye with widely spread lids for 10 minutes under running water whilst protecting the unimpaired eye.
Then, immediately transport the casualty to an eye doctor / to hospital.
The degree of the damage cannot be directly recognised.
[7985, 7979]
Skin:
Remove contaminated clothing while protecting yourself.
Rinse the affected skin areas for at least 10 to 20 minutes under running water.
Arrange for medical treatment.
[7985]
Respiratory tract:
Whilst protecting yourself remove the casualty from the hazardous area and take him to the fresh air.
Lay the casualty down in a quiet place and protect him against hypothermia.
As soon as possible repeatedly have the casualty deeply breath a glucocorticoid inhalation spray in.
In the case of breathing difficulties have the casualty inhale oxygen.
Position the casualty in a semi-sitting position.
Position and transport the casualty in stable recovery position in case of the risk of unconsciousness.
Even in cases of minor/lacking symptoms rapidly:
Arrange medical treatment.
[7985,160,22]
Swallowing:
Rinse the mouth and spit the fluids out.
If the casualty is conscious have him drink 1 glass of water (ca 200 ml).
If immediately available have the casualty rather drink 1% - 2% aqueous ammonium chloride or ammonium carbonate solution or 20% urea solution.
Lay the casualty down in a quiet place and protect him against hypothermia.
Do not make the casualty vomit.
In case of spontaneous vomiting, to avoid aspiration, keep the casualty in a prone position with the head lower than the chest.
In all cases immediately summon a doctor to the scene of the accident.
[160, 8101, 454]
Information for physicians:
Symptoms of acute toxicity:
Eyes: Depending on the concentration/exposure time solutions trigger slight, reversible irritations (0.1% solution) up to permanent lesions of the cornea (e.g., by 40% solution); in many cases the degree can only be recognised after a latency period; exposures to gas/vapour: Lacrimation, values of 50 ppm can trigger corrosions; [7979]
Skin: Concentration/duration-depending irritations to corrosions, superficial coagulation necroses with hardening and tanning of the skin as well as anaesthesia; allergic skin reactions [160] (periorbital oedema, urticaria, delayed eczema formation); [7748, 7619] systemic effects might also occur in connection with skin damage; [7748]
Inhalation: Irritation of the nasopharyngeal mucosae (burning sensations, urge to sneeze, colds), possibly asthma attacks/asthmatic complaints; high concentrations can trigger strong respiratory disorders, coughing attacks, tightness in the chest, headache, circulatory reactions; [7656, 7619] risk of glottis oedema/spasms, bronchospasm, possibly bronchiolitis, pneumonia, lung oedema; [160]
Ingestion: Concentration-depending irritations to corrosions of the mucosae, including retrosternal and abdominal pain, retching spasms, bloody vomiting, cyanosis, respiratory insufficiency; possibly followed later by the formation of strictures; [7637]
Absorption: Feeling of anxiety/fear, shortness of breath [7637] albuminuria, haematuria, oliguria to anuria; acidosis, drowsiness, vertigo, spasms, cardiovascular reactions, severe cases might involve rapid loss of consciousness/coma and exitus. [160]

First medical assistance:
Rinse the eyes repeatedly with water after the contact with solutions/concentrated vapours, provide pain treatment as required. In all cases, the casualty must be further examined by an ophthalmologist as soon as possible. [22]
Ensure thorough rinsing of the contaminated skin areas with water. [160] Irritated skin areas may be treated with a dermatocorticoid. [7638] In the case of wetting of large areas and simultaneous skin damage, the casualty should be admitted to hospital to clarify the extent of the toxicity (systemic effects?). [7748]
Massive inhalation requires immediate glucocorticoid administration (via inhalation/intravenously) besides the supply of fresh air or oxygen. [160, 22]
The treatment with bronchodilators proved to be successful after the inhalation of high concentrations. [7978] The urge to cough should be treated with codeine. [22]
Severe cases might require intubation/tracheotomy. [160]
The casualty must then be transported to hospital to ensure further treatment. [7656]
Ingestion should be treated with a dilution therapy. The performance of an emergency endoscopy might become necessary. When signs of corrosions are positively lacking, primary elimination of the poison by aspiration of the gastric contents should be considered. [160, 8101]
Further treatment as in the case of acid corrosions, special attention must be paid to possible symptoms of shock. The major measures to be taken in hospital include cardiovascular monitoring, acidosis compensation, monitoring of the kidney functions and thorax disorders (risk of mediastinitis). Formaldehyde and its metabolite formic acid can be dialysed. [160]
Recommendations:
Provide the physician information about the substance/product and treatment already administered.
Aqueous FMH solutions can contain approx. 10% methanol as stabiliser without the need of a specific indication. Therefore, the determination of the methanol level in the blood is recommended after the ingestion of relevant formalin amounts. [160]
FMH can be transformed to the less toxic hexamethylenetetramine with ammonium salts or urea. However, administration of 1%-2% ammonium chloride or ammonium carbonate solution or 20% urea solution as an ‘antidote’ is only advisable when it is performed within a few minutes after ingestion of FMH. [8101, 160]
Annotation:
This first aid information was compiled on 15.05.2017.
It will be updated if necessary.
This information was translated from German into English by Übersetzungsbüro Branco.

OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH CHECK

Prophylaxis offer: Occupational medical prevention has to be offered when, conducting activities with this substance, repeated exposure cannot be excluded.
Subsequent prophylaxis: After termination of activities with exposure to this substance subsequent occupational medical prophylaxis has to be offered.

Deadlines: Prophylaxis offer has to be made prior to taking up work. Deadlines for the proposal of regularly recurrent occupational medical prevention and subsequent prophylaxis are to gather from the Occupational Health Rule (Arbeitsmedizinische Regel) “AMR Nummer 2.1”.

SAFE HANDLING

Handling | Storage | Fire and explosion protection | Organisational measures | Personal protection | Disposal considerations | Accidental release measures | Fire fighting measures

PRELIMINARY NOTE

The following data refers to the handling of formaldehyde solutions.

TECHNICAL MEASURES - HANDLING

Workplace:
Work areas should be physically separated if possible.
Provision of very good ventilation in the working area.
The floor should not have a floor drain.
Washing facility at the workplace required.
Eye bath required. These locations must be signposted
clearly.
When handling excessive amounts of the substance an emergency shower is required.
Equipment:
Carcinogenic and germ cell mutagenic substances should only be used in closed apparatus. If release of the substance cannot be prevented, then it should be suctioned off at the point of exit.
If dangerous pressure can arise from contact with heat, suitable safety measures and equipment should be provided.
Consider emission limit values, a purification of waste gases if necessary.
Label containers and pipelines clearly.
 
Suitable materials:
Glass
Stainless steel
Polyethylene PE
Aluminium
(at room temperature)
 
Unsuitable materials:
Iron-, copper-, nickel- and zinc alloys
Advice on safer handling:
Take care to maintain clean working place.
The substance must not be present at workplaces in quantities above that required for work to be progressed.
Do not leave container open.
Use leak-proof equipment with exhaust for refilling or transfer.
Avoid splashing.
Fill only into labelled container.
Avoid any contact when handling the substance.
Prevent seepage into flooring (use of a steel tub).
Use an appropriate exterior vessel when transporting in fragile containers.
Cleaning and maintenance:
All rooms and equipment have to be cleaned regularly.
Use protective equipment while cleaning if necessary.
A device that has become dirty may only be used in other work areas after it has been cleaned.
Only conduct maintenance and other work on or in the vessel or closed spaces after obtaining written permission.

TECHNICAL MEASURES - STORAGE

Storage:
Keep in locked storage or only make accessible to specialists or their authorised assistants.
Do not use any food containers - risk of mistake.
Containers have to be labelled clearly and permanently.
Store in the original container as much as possible.
Preferably use unbreakable containers rather than glass
containers.
Place fragile vessels in break-proof outer vessels.
Keep container tightly closed.
Recommended storage at room temperature.
Keep container in a well-ventilated place.
Substance is sensitive to light, protect from exposure to light.
Conditions of collocated storage:
Storage class 6.1 C (Combustible, acutely toxic Cat. 3 or chronic effecting substances)
Only substances of the same storage class should be stored together.
Collocated storage with the following substances is prohibited:
- Pharmaceuticals, foods, and animal feeds including additives.
- Infectious, radioactive und explosive substances.
- Gases.
- Other explosive substances of storage class 4.1A.
- Strongly oxidizing substances of storage class 5.1A.
- Ammonium nitrate and preparations containing ammonium nitrate.
- Organic peroxides and self reactive substances.
Under certain conditions the collocated storage with the following sub-stances is permitted (For more details see TRGS 510):
- Pyrophoric substances.
- Substances liberating flammable gases in contact with water.
- Oxidizing substances of storage class 5.1B.
The substance should not be stored with substances with which hazardous chemical reactions are possible.

TECHNICAL MEASURES - FIRE AND EXPLOSION PROTECTION

Technical, constructive measures:
Substance is combustible.
Fire fighting equipment must be available.
Inspect the electrical fittings regularly against the higher risk of corrosion.
Precaution on handling:
Areas in which the substance is heated to above its flash point and processed are areas of fire hazard.
Keep away from open flames.
Welding only under supervision.
Only work with vessels and lines after these have been thoroughly rinsed.

ORGANISATIONAL MEASURES

Instruction on the hazards and the protective measures using instruction manual (TRGS 555) are required with signature if just more than one minor hazard was detected.
Instruction must be provided before employment and then at a minimum of once per annum thereafter.
An escape and rescue plan must be prepared when the location, scale, and use of the work-site so demand.
It must be assured that the workplace limit values are being maintained. If the limit values are exceeded, additional protection measures are necessary.
The measurements must be recorded and kept on file.
The number of employees who work with the hazardous substance must be kept to a minimum.
Observe the restrictions on juvenile employment as defined in the "Jugendarbeitsschutzgesetz".
Observe the restrictions on activities of pregnant women according to the the „Mutterschutzgesetz“ (German Maternity Protection Act)
Only employees are permitted to enter the work areas. Signposting to this effect must be displayed.

PERSONAL PROTECTION

Body protection:
Depending on the risk, wear a tight, long apron and boots or suitable chemical protection suit.
Respiratory protection:
In an emergency (e.g.: unintentional release of the substance, exceeding the occupational exposure limit value) respiratory protection must be worn. Consider the maximum period for wear.
This is a low-boiling-point substance of group 3 of the DGUV Regel 112-190.
Respiratory protection: Multi gas filter ABEK, colour code brown-gray-yellow-green.
 
If paraformaldehyde has been formed from unstabelized aqueous formaldehyde solution:
Respiratory protection: Combination filter ABEK-P3, colour code brown-gray-yellow-green-white.
 
Use insulating device for concentrations above the usage limits for filter devices, for oxygen concentrations below 17% volume, or in circumstances which are unclear.
Eye protection:
Sufficient eye protection must be worn.
Wear chemical safety goggles.
If the face is at risk a protective shield must also be worn.
If vapours or aerosols that may injure the eyes arise, then safety of the eyes can best be guaranteed by wearing a full mask.
Hand protection:
Use protective gloves. The glove material must be sufficiently impermeable and resistant to the substance. Check the tightness before wear. Gloves should be well cleaned before being removed, then stored in a well ventilated location. Pay attention to skin care.
Skin protection cremes do not protect sufficiently against the substance.
Textile or leather gloves are completely unsuitable. 
 
The following information is valid for 5 % w/v solutions:
The following materials are suitable for protective gloves (Permeation time >= 8 hours):
Polychloroprene - CR (0,5 mm)
Nitrile rubber/Nitrile latex - NBR (0,35 mm)
Butyl rubber - Butyl (0,5 mm)
Fluoro carbon rubber - FKM (0,4 mm)
Polyvinyl chloride - PVC (0,5 mm)
Following materials are unsuitable for protective gloves because of degradation, severe swelling or low permeation time:
Natural rubber/Natural latex - NR
 
The following information is valid for 10% to 20 % w/v solutions:
The following materials are suitable for protective gloves (Permeation time >= 8 hours):
Nitrile rubber/Nitrile latex - NBR (0,35 mm)
Butyl rubber - Butyl (0,5 mm)
Fluoro carbon rubber - FKM (0,4 mm)
Protective gloves of the following materials should not be worn longer than 4 hours continually (Permeation time >= 4 hours):
Polychloroprene - CR (0,5 mm)
Protective gloves of the following materials should not be worn longer than 2 hours continually (Permeation time >= 2 hours):
Polyvinyl chloride - PVC (0,5 mm)
Following materials are unsuitable for protective gloves because of degradation, severe swelling or low permeation time:
Natural rubber/Natural latex - NR
 
The following information is valid for 30 % w/v solutions:
The following materials are suitable for protective gloves (Permeation time >= 8 hours):
Nitrile rubber/Nitrile latex - NBR (0,35 mm)
Butyl rubber - Butyl (0,5 mm)
Fluoro carbon rubber - FKM (0,4 mm)
Protective gloves of the following materials should not be worn longer than 4 hours continually (Permeation time >= 4 hours):
Polychloroprene - CR (0,5 mm)
Protective gloves of the following materials should not be worn longer than 1 hour continually (Permeation time >= 1 hour):
Polyvinyl chloride - PVC (0,5 mm)
Following materials are unsuitable for protective gloves because of degradation, severe swelling or low permeation time:
Natural rubber/Natural latex - NR
 
The times listed are suggested by measurements taken at 22 °C and constant contact. Temperatures raised by warmed substances, body heat, etc. and a weakening of the effective layer thickness caused by expansion can lead to a significantly shorter breakthrough time. In case of doubt contact the gloves' manufacturer. A 1.5-times increase / decrease in the layer thickness doubles / halves the breakthrough time. This data only applies to the pure substance. Transferred to mixtures of substances, these figures should only be taken as an aid to orientation.
Occupational hygiene:
Foods, beverages and other articles of consumption must not be consumed at the work areas. Suitable areas are to be designated for these purposes.
Avoid contact with skin. In case of contact wash skin.
Avoid contact with eyes. In case of contact rinse the affected eye(s).
Avoid inhalation of vapour or mist.
Avoid contact with clothing. Contaminated clothes must be exchanged and cleaned carefully.
Before cleaning clothes rinse thoroughly first in diluted ammonia solution.
Before a break it might be necessary to change clothes.
Provide washrooms with showers and if possible rooms with separate storage for street clothing and work clothing.
The skin must be washed with soap and water before breaks and at the end of work. Apply fatty skin-care products after washing.

DISPOSAL CONSIDERATIONS

Hazardous waste according to Waste Catalogue Ordinance (AVV).
If there is no way of recycling it must be disposed of in compliance with the respective national and local regulations.
 
Collection of small amounts of substance:
Collect in container for toxic, flammable compounds.
Collection vessels must be clearly labelled with a systematic description of their contents. Store the vessels in a well-ventilated location. Entrust them to the appropriate authorities for disposal.

ACCIDENTAL RELEASE MEASURES

Evacuate area. Warn affected surroundings.
The hazardous area may only be entered once suitable protective measures are implemented. Only then can the hazardous situation be removed.
Wear respiratory protection, eye protection, hand protection and body protection (see chapter Personal Protection).
Absorb any spilt liquid with an absorbent (e.g. diatomite, vermiculite, sand) and dispose of according to regulations.
Afterwards ventilate area and wash spill site.
 
Endangerment of watert:
Severe hazard to waters. Avoid penetration into water, drainage, sewer, or the ground. Inform the responsible authorities about penetration of even small quantities.

FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Classes of fires:
B liquid or melting substances
Suitable extinguishing media:
Water (spray - not splash)
Dry extinguishing powder
Carbon dioxide
Fight large fire with alcohol resistant foam or water spray.
Instructions:
Cool surrounding containers with water spray.
If possible, take container out of dangerous zone.
Heating causes a rise in pressure, risk of bursting and
explosion.
Shut off sources of ignition.
Contain vapours with water spray.
Do not allow runoff to get into the sewage system.
Special protective equipment:
In the case of a fire hazardous substances can be released.
Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide
Wear self-contained breathing apparatus and special tightly sealed suit.

REGULATIONS

GHS Classification/Labelling | Workplace labelling | Water hazard class | Air quality control | Transport Regulations | Threshold limit values | EC-Threshold limit values | MAK recommendations | Seveso III | Restriction of use | Technical rules | Regulations of accident insurers | Occupational health check

EUROPEAN GHS CLASSIFICATION AND LABELLING

Classification:
Acute toxicity, Category 3, oral; H301
Acute toxicity, Category 3, inhalation; H331
Acute toxicity, Category 3, dermal; H311
Skin corrosion, Category 1B; H314
Skin sensitisation, Category 1; H317
Germ cell mutagenicity, Category 2; H341
Carcinogenicity, Category 1B; H350
Specific Target Organ Toxicity (single exposure), Category 1; H370
Specific Target Organ Toxicity (single exposure), Category 3; H335
Picture Picture Picture
Signal Word: "Danger"
Hazard Statement - H-phrases:
H301+H311+H331: Toxic if swallowed, in contact with skin or if inhaled.
H314: Causes severe skin burns and eye damage.
H317: May cause an allergic skin reaction.
H335: May cause respiratory irritation.
H341: Suspected of causing genetic defects.
H350: May cause cancer.
H370: Causes damage to organs.
Precautionary Statement - P-phrases:
P201: Obtain special instructions before use.
P280: Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.
P303+P361+P353: IF ON SKIN (or hair): Remove/Take off immediately all contaminated clothing. Rinse skin with water or shower.
P304+P340+P310: IF INHALED: Remove person to fresh air and keep comfortable for breathing. Immediately call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician.
P305+P351+P338: IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing.
P308+P310: IF exposed or concerned: Immediately call a POISON CENTER or doctor.
Manufacturer's specification by Sigma-Aldrich
 
GESTIS advice:
The classification applies to aqueous formaldehyde solutions stabilized with at least 10 % methanol. At methanol concentrations <3 %, H370 does not apply. At methanol concentrations of 3 ... <10 %, H371 must be stated instead of H370.
Reference: 01221 07507 
State: 2015
Checked: 2015
The substance is listed in appendix VI, table 3 of CLP regulation.
The given classification can deviate from the listed classification, since this classification is to be complemented concerning missing or divergent danger classes and categories for the respective substance.
Reference: 99999 

GHS-CLASSIFICATION OF MIXTURES

Specific Concentration Limits:
Skin Corr. 1B; H314: C >=25 %
Skin Irrit. 2; H315: 5 % <= C < 25 %
Eye Irrit. 2; H319: 5 % <= C < 25 %
STOT SE 3; H335: C >= 5 %
Skin Sens. 1; H317: C >= 0,2 %
The general concentration limits from Annex 1 of the Regulation (EU) 1272/2008 are to be used for possibly unspecified concentration ranges or further available substance classifications.
Special rules for supplemental label elements according to Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 Annex II, No 2.8: The label on the packaging of mixtures containing at least one substance classified as sensitising and present in a concentration equal to or greater than 0,1 % or in a concentration equal to or greater than that specified under a specific note for the substance in part 3 of Annex VI shall bear the statement:
EUH208 - ‘Contains (name of sensitising substance). May produce an allergic reaction’
Reference: 07507 

WORKPLACE LABELLING ACCORDING TO GERMAN ASR A1.3

Prohibition label:
Picture No Smoking
Picture No admittance for unauthorized persons
Picture No eating and drinking
Warning label:
Picture Caution - toxic material
Picture Caution - corrosive material
Precept label:
Picture Use safety goggles
Picture Wear safety gloves

GERMAN WATER HAZARD CLASS

Substance No: 112
WGK 3 - severe hazard to waters
Classification according to the announcement of the list of substances hazardous to water in the Federal Register of 10.08.2017, last update 22.08.2019

TECHNICAL INSTRUCTIONS ON AIR QUALITY CONTROL (TA LUFT)

Chapter 5.2.7.1.1 Carcinogenic Substances
The substance must be assigned to the class (I, II or III) whose substances have the nearest potency. We can not accomplish this evaluation due to insufficiency of data.

TRANSPORT REGULATIONS

UN Number: 2209
Shipping name: Formaldehyde, aqueous solution, with not less than 25% formaldehyde
Hazard Identification Number: 80
Class: 8 (Corrosive Substances)
Packing Group: III (low danger)
Danger Label: 8
Picture
Classification code: C9
Tunnel restrictions:
Passage forbidden through tunnels of category E.
Reference: 07902 
UN Number: 1198
Shipping name: Formaldehyde, solution, flammable
Hazard Identification Number: 38
Class: 3 (Flammable Liquids)
Packing Group: III (low danger)
Danger Label: 3/8
Picture Picture
Classification code: FC
Tunnel restrictions:
Transports in bulk or in tanks: passage forbidden through tunnels of category D and E.
Other transports: passage forbidden through tunnels of category E.
Reference: 07902 

TRGS 900 - GERMAN OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE LIMIT VALUES

0,3 ml/m³
0,37 mg/m³
Peak limitation: Excursion factor 2
Duration 15 min, mean; 4 times per shift; interval 1 hour
Category I - Substances for which local irritant effects determine the exposure limit value, also respiratory allegens
Carcinogenic substances of category 1A or 1B or carcinogenic activities or procedures according to Article 2(3) No. 4 of the Hazardous Substance Regulation –Article 10 of the Ordinance on Hazardous Materials is additionally to be observed.
There is no reason to fear a risk of damage to the developing embryo or foetus when AGW and BGW are adhered to.
Risk of sensitization of skin
Source: AGS

EC OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE LIMIT VALUES

Directive 2019/983/EU
Binding occupational exposure limit value of the European Union
8 hours limit value: 0,37 mg/m³ (0,3 ppm)
Short term limit value: 0,74 mg/m³ (0,6 ppm)
The substance can cause sensitisation of the skin.
Transitional measures: Limit value of 0,62 mg/m3 or 0,5 ppm for the health care, funeral and embalming sectors until 11 July 2024

RECOMMENDATIONS OF MAK-COMMISSION

This data is recommended by scientific experience and is not established law.
0,3 ml/m³
0,37 mg/m³
Peak limitation: Excursion factor 2
Duration 15 min, mean; 4 times per shift; interval 1 hour
Category I - Substances for which local irritant effects determine the exposure limit value, also respiratory allegens
Risk of sensitization of skin
Carcinogenic: Category 4
Substances which are carcinogenic with no or minor genetically toxical effects. If there is a MAK-value for these substances no considerable contribution to the hazard of cancer will be expected.
Pregnancy: Group C
There is no reason to fear a risk of damage to the developing embryo or foetus when MAK and BAT values are adhered to.
Germ cell mutagenic: Category 5
Substances with a minimal effect. The compliance of the MAK-value should not give any genetic risk to humans.
Scope: formaldehyde
During exposure to mixtures it should be ensured that irritant effects do not occur.
A momentary value of 1 ml/m3 (1,2 mg/m3) should not be exceeded.

DIRECTIVE 2012/18/EU (Seveso III)

Annex I Part 2 Number: 14
Formaldehyde (concentration ≥ 90 %)
Qualifying quantity for the application of
Lower-tier requirements: 5 t
Upper-tier requirements: 50 t

RESTRICTIONS OF USE / BANS OF USE

REACH Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 Annex XVII
Annex XVII, Point 3
1. The putting into circulation and the utilisation of the substance is not allowed in decorative objects, games and joke articles.
2. Substances labelled with H304 which can be utilised as fuels in decorative lamps and are put in circulation in amounts of 15 l or less must not contain a dye and/or a perfume.
Further information on prohibitions can be taken from the regulation.
 
Annex XVII, Point 28 and Point 29 and Point 30
The substance shall not be placed on the market or used as a substance or as a constituent of other substances or in mixtures for supply to the general public when the concentration of the substance or mixture reaches or exceeds the concentration limits according to the CLP Regulation. When placing the substance or mixture on the market for professional users, the supplier shall ensure that the packaging of such substances and mixtures is marked with the label "Restricted to professional users." For further details, please refer to the Regulation.
 
Annex XVII, Point 72
The substance shall not be placed on the market after 1 November 2020 in any of the following:
(a) clothing or related accessories;
(b) textiles other than clothing which, under normal or reasonably foreseeable conditions of use, come into contact with human skin to an extent similar to clothing;
(c) footwear;
if the clothing, related accessory, textile other than clothing or footwear is for use by consumers and the substance is present in a concentration, measured in homogeneous material, equal to or greater than that specified for that substance in Appendix 12.
Further information on the prohibition and the concentration limits can be taken from the regulation.
Prohibitions of Chemicals Ordinance
Annex 1 to §3, Section 1
Derived timber products must not be put in circulation, if the equilibrium concentration of the formaldehyde caused by the derived timber product in the air of a test room exceeds 0.1 ml/m3 (ppm).
Washing agents, cleaning agents and care products with more than 0.2% by weight formaldehyde must not be put in circulation.
Exceptions can be taken from the Prohibition of Chemicals Ordinance.
Consumer Goods Ordinance
Attachment 1 to § 3, Point 5
The substance must not be utilised for the production or treatment of joke articles.

TECHNICAL RULES FOR HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES

TRGS 201
Einstufung und Kennzeichnung bei Tätigkeiten mit Gefahrstoffen; Ausgabe Februar 2017, zuletzt geändert und ergänzt April 2018

TRGS 400
Gefährdungsbeurteilung für Tätigkeiten mit Gefahrstoffen; Ausgabe Juli 2017

TRGS 555
Betriebsanweisung und Information der Beschäftigten; Ausgabe Februar 2017

TRGS 600
Substitution; Ausgabe August 2008
TRGS 402
Ermitteln und Beurteilen der Gefährdungen bei Tätigkeiten mit Gefahrstoffen: Inhalative Exposition; Ausgabe Januar 2010, zuletzt geändert und ergänzt Oktober 2016
TRGS 401
Gefährdung durch Hautkontakt, Ermittlung - Beurteilung - Maßnahmen; Ausgabe Juni 2008; zuletzt berichtigt März 2011
TRGS 410
Expositionsverzeichnis bei Gefährdung gegenüber krebserzeugenden oder keimzellmutagenen Gefahrstoffen der Kategorien 1A oder 1B; Ausgabe Juni 2015
TRGS 500
Schutzmaßnahmen; Ausgabe Januar 2008, ergänzt Mai 2008
TRGS 509
Lagern von flüssigen und festen Gefahrstoffen in ortsfesten Behältern sowie Füll- und Entleerstellen für ortsbewegliche Behälter; Ausgabe September 2014, zuletzt berichtigt, geändert und ergänzt April 2017

TRGS 510
Lagerung von Gefahrstoffen in ortsbeweglichen Behältern; Ausgabe Januar 2013, geändert und ergänzt November 2014, berichtigt November 2015
TRGS 800
Brandschutzmaßnahmen; Ausgabe Dezember 2010
TRGS 513
Tätigkeiten an Sterilisatoren mit Ethylenoxid und Formaldehyd; Ausgabe Oktober 2011, geändert und ergänzt Oktober 2017
TRGS 522
Raumdesinfektionen mit Formaldehyd; Ausgabe Januar 2013

REGULATIONS OF GERMAN ACCIDENT INSURERS

DGUV Regel 112-190
Benutzung von Atemschutzgeräten, Ausgabe Dezember 2011
http://publikationen.dguv.de/dguv/pdf/10002/r-190.pdf
(in German only)
DGUV Regel 112-195
Benutzung von Schutzhandschuhen, Aktualisierte Nachdruckfassung Oktober 2007
http://publikationen.dguv.de/dguv/pdf/10002/bgr195.pdf
(in German only)

LINKS

Statement concerning the Occupational Exposure Limit Value (in german only, source BAuA)
International Limit Values
OECD Screening Information DataSet (SIDS)
The MAK Collection for Occupational Health and Safety
Principles for the Safe Handling and Distribution of Highly Toxic Gases and Mixtures (IGC Doc 130/11/E)
Publications of the IGV (Industriegaseverband e.V.) (in german only)
Publications of EIGA (European Industrial Gases Association) Documents Download
DGUV Information 213-098: List of substances - lesson in schools (in German only)

REFERENCES

Reference: 00001
IFA: Erfassungs- und Pflegehandbuch der GESTIS-Stoffdatenbank (nicht öffentlich)
Data acquisition and maintenance manual of the GESTIS substance database (non-public)

Reference: 00022
G. Hommel
"Handbuch der gefährlichen Güter" Loseblattsammlung mit Ergänzungslieferungen
"Handbook of dangerous goods " loose-leaf collection with supplement deliveries
Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg

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Environmental Health Criteria (Serie), WHO, Genf

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Sorbe "Sicherheitstechnische Kenndaten chemischer Stoffe" ("Safety-related characteristics of chemical substances"), sicherheitsNet.de, Landsberg, 07/2011

Reference: 00160
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(Federal Institute for Health Protection of Consumers and Veterinary Medicine: Information index for the detection and treatment of poisoning)

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IUCLID-CD-ROM, Year 2000 edition; European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, European Chemicals Bureau; Ispra, Italy

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Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) "Screening Information Data Set for High Production Volume Chemicals (SIDS)", http://www.inchem.org/pages/sids.html

Reference: 00440
Datenbank CHEMSAFE, Version 2016.0, DECHEMA-PTB-BAM

Reference: 00454
Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB)

Reference: 01211
GHS-Sicherheitsdatenblatt, Merck
GHS Material Safety Data Sheet, Merck

Reference: 01221
GHS-Sicherheitsdatenblatt, Sigma-Aldrich
GHS Material Safety Data Sheet, Sigma-Aldrich

Reference: 01241
GHS-Sicherheitsdatenblatt, Acros Organics (eine Marke von Thermo Fisher Scientific)
GHS Material Safety Data Sheet, Acros Organics (A Thermo Fisher Scientific Brand)

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GHS-Sicherheitsdatenblatt, Alfa Aesar (eine Marke von Thermo Fisher Scientific)
GHS Material Safety Data Sheet, Alfa Aesar (A Thermo Fisher Scientific Brand)

Reference: 02052
European Chemicals Agency (ECHA)
Committee for Risk Assessment:
Opinion proposing harmonised classification and labeling at EU level (im Internet)

Reference: 02070
LOG KOW Databank, compiled by Dr. James Sangster, Sangster Research Laboratories, Montreal, Canada, distributed by Technical Database Services (TDS), New York

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Toxicological Data, compiled by the National Institute of Health (NIH), USA, selected and distributed by Technical Database Services (TDS), New York, 2009

Reference: 02072
Ecotoxicological Data, compiled by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), selected and distributed by Technical Database Services (TDS), New York, 2009

Reference: 05200
Kühn-Birett "Merkblätter Gefährliche Arbeitsstoffe" Loseblattsammlung mit Ergänzungslieferungen, ecomed Sicherheit, Landsberg

Reference: 05300
TRGS 510 "Lagerung von Gefahrstoffen in ortsbeweglichen Behältern" Ausgabe Januar 2013, in der Fassung vom 30.11.2015

Reference: 05334
Begründung zum Arbeitsplatzgrenzwert (Quelle BAuA)

Reference: 05350
TRGS 900 "Arbeitsplatzgrenzwerte" Ausgabe Januar 2006, zuletzt geändert und ergänzt Februar 2019

Reference: 06002
L. Roth, U. Weller
"Gefährliche Chemische Reaktionen" Loseblattsammlung mit Ergänzungslieferungen
"Dangerous chemical reactions" loose-leaf collection with supplement deliveries
ecomed-Verlag

Reference: 07507
Verordnung (EU) Nr. 605/2014 der Kommission vom 5. Juni 2014 zur Änderung der Verordnung (EG) Nr. 1272/2008 des Europäischen Parlaments und des Rates über die Einstufung, Kennzeichnung und Verpackung von Stoffen und Gemischen (EG-GHS-Verordnung, 6. Änderung) mit Änderungen durch Verordnung (EU) Nr. 2015/491 der Kommission vom 23. März 2015.

Reference: 07510
Verordnung (EG) Nr. 1272/2008 des Europäischen Parlaments und des Rates vom 16. Dezember 2008 über die Einstufung, Kennzeichnung und Verpackung von Stoffen und Gemischen, geändert durch Verordnung (EG) Nr. 790/2009 der Kommission vom 10. August 2009 (EG-GHS-Verordnung) (ehemals Richtlinie 67/548/EWG mit Anpassungsrichtlinien in der jeweils gültigen Fassung).

Reference: 07520
Europäische Chemikalienagentur ECHA: Informationen über registrierte Substanzen
European Chemicals Agency ECHA: Information on registered substances

Reference: 07580
Bekanntmachung der Liste der wassergefährdenden Stoffe im Bundesanzeiger vom 10.08.2017, zuletzt geändert 22.08.2019

Reference: 07606
Wirth, Gloxhuber "Toxikologie" 4.Auflage, Thieme Verlag 1985

Reference: 07619
DFG: Toxikologisch-arbeitsmedizinische Begründungen von MAK-Werten; Verlag Chemie

Reference: 07637
S. Moeschlin "Klinik und Therapie der Vergiftungen" 7. Auflage, Thieme-Verlag, Stuttgart 1986

Reference: 07656
D. Walsh (Hrsg.) "Chemical Safety Data Sheets; Vol. I Solvents, Vol. II Metalls, Vol. III Corrosives and Irritants, Vol. IV Toxic Chemicals, Vol.V Flammable Chemicals" University of Technology, Loughborough 1990

Reference: 07748
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists "Documentation of the threshold limit values and biological exposure indices Loseblattsammlung mit Ergänzungslieferungen

Reference: 07795
H. Geerißen "GloSaDa 2000 Plus - Glove Safety Data"

Reference: 07796
L. Roth "Wassergefährdende Stoffe" Loseblattsammlung mit Ergänzungslieferungen, ecomed-Verlag

Reference: 07890
F. Klaschka; D. Vossmann: Kontaktallergene: Chemische, klinische und experimentelle Daten; (Allergen-Liste), Erich Schmidt Verlag, Berlin 1994

Reference: 07902
BAM: Datenbank Gefahrgut-Schnellinfo

Reference: 07914
D. Kaiser, E. Schlede (Hrsg.) "Chemikalien und Kontaktallergie - Eine bewertende Zusammenstellung" Loseblattsammlung mit Ergänzungslieferungen, 1995

Reference: 07930
NIOSH IDLHs "Dokumentation for Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLHs)" U.S. Department of Health and Human Service, Cincinnati Mai 1994

Reference: 07979
W.M. Grant, J.S. Schuman: Toxicology of the eyes; 4th Edition, Charles C Thomas Publisher, Springfield, Illinois; 1993

Reference: 07985
IPCS: CICADs - Concise International Chemical Assessment Documents. WHO, Genf, Serie ab 1998

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Reinhard Ludewig, Ralf Regenthal:
Akute Vergiftungen und Arzneimittelüberdosierungen,
11. Auflage,
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DFG Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft: MAK- und BAT-Werte-Liste 2019, Senatskommission zur Prüfung gesundheitsschädlicher Arbeitsstoffe, Mitteilung 55; WILEY-VCH

Reference: 99996
Projektgebundene arbeitsmedizinisch-toxikologische Literatur (2)
Project related bibliographical references regarding occupational health and toxikology (2)

Reference: 99999
Angabe des Bearbeiters
Indication of the editor

Identification | Characterisation | Formula | Physical and chemical properties | Toxicology / Ecotoxikology | Occupational health and first aid | Safe handling | Regulations | Links | Literature register
This substance datasheet was created with greatest care. Nevertheless no liability irrespective of legal basis can be accepted.